Thyroglossal Duct Cysts: A Clinico-Surgical Experience of 100 Cases
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Keywords:Thyroglossal, cysts, fistula, midline neck swelling, sistrunk
Objective: Thyroglossal duct cysts occur if a thyroglossal duct does not disappear after the complete embryonic development of the thyroid gland and becomes cystic. This study aimed to examine the clinical features, physical examination findings, and treatments of 100 patients who underwent surgery with the diagnosis of thyroglossal duct cyst in the midline of the neck. Methods: This was a retrospective study based on anamnesis forms, clinical examinations, and radiographic imaging of 100 cases diagnosed with and operated on for thyroglossal duct cyst in our clinic. Results: Of the 100 patients, 53 were males and 47 were females, with their ages ranging from 1 to 62 (mean 18.15 6 15.8) years. The most common complaints were neck swelling (88%) and intermittent discharge (11%). Concomitant infection and fistula were present in 52 and 30% patients, respectively. The most common localization observed in 67 (67%) patients was in the infrahyoid area. Infection and abscess were observed in six cases (6%) during the early post-operative period. Papillary thyroid carcinoma, in addition to the cyst, was found in four cases. Recurrence was observed in three (3.7%) of the 81 primary cases. Sistrunk procedure was employed in all study patients. Conclusion: Thyroglossal duct cyst is the most common observed congenital mass in the neck. It must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients admitted due to discharge and swelling in the midline of the neck. The generally accepted treatment of thyroglossal duct cysts is surgery, with Sistrunk surgery being the most appropriate surgical technique owing to its low complication and recurrence rate. It should also be known that these cysts have a risk of malignant transformation. The most common post-operative complications observed in our study were infection and abscess.
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