Comparison of Group Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing with Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy Protocol after the 2020 Earthquake in Turkey: A Field Study in Children and Adolescents
Abstract views: 135 / PDF downloads: 84
Keywords:Earthquake, EMDR, CBT, psychosocial intervention, group therapy, PTSD
Objective: We aimed at comparing the efficiency of “Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (EMDR-IGTP)” with “Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy Based Crisis Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents (CIPCA)” in children who survived the 2020 earthquake in Turkey. Methods: We randomly divided 56 children and adolescents who were earthquake victims between the ages of 8 and 14 into two groups. Half of the participants underwent EMDR-IGTP, while the other underwent CIPCA. Outcomes were obtained using clinical global impression (CGI) and the subjective units of distress (SUDS) scales before and after therapy. Results: The median age of the participants was 10 years (range: 8–14) and 53.6% of them were male. The median CGI scores of the EMDR-IGTP group before and after therapy were 7 (3–7) and 1 (1–7), while that of the CIPCA group before and after therapy were 7 (3–7) and 4 (2–7), respectively (p<0.001). The median SUDS scores of the EMDR-IGTP group before and after therapy were 10 (5–10) and 1 (0–10), while that of the CIPCA group before and after therapy were 9 (5–10) and 5.5 (3–9), respectively (p<0.001). Conclusion: Both EMDR-IGTP and CIPCA are effective in reducing the acute traumatic stress following the earthquake; however, EMDR-IGTP is relatively more effective. Thus, both methods can be used as a psychosocial intervention in post-earthquake traumatic events.
Fukuchi N. Psychoeducation for children in a psychiatric ward in the immediate aftermath of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan. Intervention 2020; 18: 85.
World Health Organization. Building back better: sustainable mental health care after emergencies. 2013.
Brown R, Witt A, Fegert JM, Keller F, Rassenhofer M Plener P. Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Psychol Med 2017; 47: 1893-905.
Kaymaz HE, Öztürk A, Bağcıoğlu E. Psychiatric evaluation of married women who exposed to domestic violence. Gaziantep Medical Journal 2014; 20: 15-9.
Beck AT. Cognitive therapy: past, present, and future. J Consult Clin Psychol 1993; 61: 194-8.
Ceri V, Ahmad A. Exploring psychological vaccination for potentially traumatized children. J Psychol Clin Psychiatr 2018; 9.
Shapiro F, Maxfield L. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Information processing in the treatment of trauma. J Clin Psychol 2002; 58: 933-46.
Karadag M, Gokcen C, Sarp AS. EMDR therapy in children and adolescents who have post-traumatic stress disorder: a six-week follow-up study. Int J Psychiat Clin 2020; 24: 77-82.
Jarero I, Artigas L. The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol: EMDR group treatment for early intervention following critical incidents. Eur Rev Appl Psychol 2012; 62: 219-22.
Trentini C, Lauriola M, Giuliani A, Maslovaric G, Tambelli R, Fernandez I, et al. Dealing with the aftermath of mass disasters: a field study on the application of EMDR integrative group treatment protocol with child survivors of the 2016 Italy earthquakes. Front Psychol 2018; 9: 862.
Guy W. Clinical global impression. Assessment manual for Psychopharmacology 1976; 217-22.
Kim D, Bae H, Park YC. Validity of the subjective units of disturbance scale in EMDR. J EMDR Pract Res 2008; 2: 57-62.
Jarero I, Roque-López S, Gómez J, Givaudan M. Third research study on the provision of the EMDR integrative group treatment protocol with child victims of severe interpersonal violence. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicotraumatología y Disociación 2014; 6: 1-22.
Artigas L, Jarero I, Mauer M, López Cano T, Alcalá N. EMDR and traumatic stress after natural disasters: Integrative treatment protocol and the butterfly hug. Poster presented at the EMDRIA Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 2000.
Jarero I, Artigas L, Montero M, Lena L. The EMDR integrative group treatment protocol: Application with child victims of a mass disaster. J EMDR Pract Res 2008; 2: 97.
Ahmad A. Crisis intervention program for children and adolescents (CIPCA) to prevent posttraumatic psychopathology, preliminary report. Duhok Med J 2014; 8: 1-11.
Chen Y, Shen WW, Gao K, Lam CS, Chang WC, Deng H. Effectiveness RCT of a CBT intervention for youths who lost parents in the Sichuan, China, earthquake. Psychiat Serv 2014; 65: 259-62.
O’Callaghan P, McMullen J, Shannon C, Rafferty H. Comparing a trauma focused and non trauma focused intervention with war affected Congolese youth: a preliminary randomised trial. Intervention 2015; 13: 28-44.
Fernández-Martínez I, Orgilés M, Morales A, Espada JP, Essau CA. One-Year follow-up effects of a cognitive behavior therapy-based transdiagnostic program for emotional problems in young children: A school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial. J Affect Disord 2020; 262: 258-66.
Adúriz ME, Bluthgen C, Knopfler C. Helping child flood victims using group EMDR intervention in Argentina: Treatment outcome and gender differences. Int J Stress Manag 2009; 16: 138.
Tang T-C, Yang P, Yen C-F, Liu T-L. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for treating psychological disturbances in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot. Kaohsıung J Med Sci 2015; 31: 363-9.
Proudlock S and Peris J. Using EMDR therapy with patients in an acute mental health crisis. BMC psychiatry 2020; 20: 14.
Giannopoulou I, Dikaiakou A, Yule W. Cognitive-behavioural group intervention for PTSD symptoms in children following the Athens 1999 earthquake: a pilot study. Clin Child Psychol P 2006; 11: 543-53.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The content of this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.