Gut Microbiota: Formation, Lifelong Development and Relation to Cytochrome P450 System, Diseases, Drug Bioavailability and Drug Interactions
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Keywords:Microbiota, bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, personalized medicine, CYP P450s
The human microbiota is an essential and individual part of the human body composed of microorganisms that live in symbiosis with the human body. It is formed prenatally and changes throughout a person’s life due to endogenous and exogenous factors such as birth, geography, gender, sex hormones, genetics, mode of birth, age, lifestyle, nutrition, use of antibiotics, and disease-related changes. Studies on the microbiota have mostly focused on its relation to diseases, but the gut microbiota is also very sensitive to xenobiotics, which directy or indirectly alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs used by the host. Although the gut microbiota recovers in a few weeks, some changes may be permanent. It is important to consider changes in drug bioavailability in patients who were recently or currently treated with antibiotics for the safe and efficient pharmacotherapy of patients. With advanced knowledge about the microbiota and advances in the field of microbiome genetics, it may be possible that in the future, a person’s microbiota map is used in personalizing drug treatment. In this review, we aim to emphasize the importance of microbiota and drug interactions.
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