Pregnancy During the Covid-19 Pandemic: What an Obstetrician Needs to Know

Abstract views: 125 / PDF downloads: 24




COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, pregnancy, pandemic


COVID-19 is known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Nations worldwide have reported high death tolls and are adopting measures, particularly in Turkey wherein efforts are made to ensure that pregnant women are minimally affected by this epidemic that has such terrible effects. To date, a total of 206,844 cases have been confirmed in Turkey in approximately 115 days. However, the exact number of pregnant COVID-19 patients in Turkey or worldwide is not yet known. There are no conclusive data that confirm whether pregnant women are at a higher risk of acquiring this infection compared to the rest of the population. It is also not yet known if or how fetuses will be affected by this infection. However, the body of research evidence concerning COVID-19 is rapidly growing, and multiple organizations are constantly updating and expanding resources for interim guidance. In this review, we aimed to summarize the latest available research on COVID-19 virology and epidemiology as well as the status of pregnant healthcare workers together with the reported data on pregnant women and other recent findings and to discuss COVID-19 during pregnancy based on the available data.


Metrics Loading ...


WHO Director-General’s remarks at the media briefing on 2019-nCoV on 11 February 2020. World Health Organization. 2019-ncov-on11-february-2020. Accessed 12 February 2020.

World Health Organization. Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations. detail/modes-of-transmission-of-virus-causing covid-19-implications-for-ipc-precaution-recommendations. Accessed 28 March 2020.

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA 2020; 323: 1061-9.

Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA 2020; 323: 1239-42.

Linton NM, Kobayashi T, Yang Y, Hayashi K, Akhmetzhanov AR, Jung S, et al. Incubation period and other epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infections with right truncation: a statistical analysis of publicly available case data. J Clin Med 2020; 9: 538.

Yang X, Yu Y, Xu J, Shu H, Xia J, Liu H, et al. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. Lancet 2020; 8: 475-81.

Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020; 579: 270-3.

Gorbalenya AE, Baker SC, Baric R, Groot RJ, Drosten C, Gulyaeva AA, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus: The species and its viruses - a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group. Publicado en Nature Microbiology 2020.

Tang X, Wu C, Li X, Song Y, Yao X, Wu X, et al. On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2. National Science Review 2020; 7: 1012-23.

WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 24 February 2020. World Health Organization. briefingon-covid-19-24-february-2020. Accessed 26 February 2020.

CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Geographic Differences in COVID-19 Cases, Deaths, and Incidence - United States, February 12-April 7, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2020.

Donders F, Lonnée-Hoffmann R, Tsiakalos A, Mendling W, Oliveira JM, Judlin P, et al. ISIDOG Recommendations Concerning COVID-19 and Pregnancy. Diagnostics 2020; 10: 243.

Elshafeey F, Magdi R, Hindi N, Elshebiny M, Farrag N, Mahdy S, et al. A systematic scoping review of COVID-19 during pregnancy and childbirth. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2020; 150: 47-52.

National Institutes of Health. COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines. management-of-covid-19/ Accessed 22 April 2020.

Perlman S. Another Decade, Another Coronavirus. N Engl J Med 2020; 382: 760-76.

Chow N, Fleming-Dutra K, Gierke R, Hall A, Hughes M, Pilishvili T, et al. CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Preliminary Estimates of the Prevalence of Selected Underlying Health Conditions Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 - United States, February 12-March 28, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020; 69: 382-6.

Breslin N, Baptiste C, Gyamfi-Bannerman C, Miller R, Martinez R, Bernstein K, et al. COVID-19 infection among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women: Two weeks of confirmed presentations to an affiliated pair of New York City hospitals. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2020; 2: 100118.

Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) . 16-24 February 2020. https:// Accessed 14 April 2020.

Karami P, Naghavi M, Feyzi A, Aghamohammadi M, Novin MS, Mobaien A, et al. Mortality of a pregnant patient diagnosed with COVID-19: A case report with clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. Travel Med Infect Dis 2020; 101665.

Bajpai D, Shah S. COVID-19 Pandemic and Pregnancy in Kidney Disease. Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease. 2020.

Della Gatta AN, Rizzo R, Pilu G, Simonazzi G. COVID19 during pregnancy: a systematic review of reported cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020; 223: 36-41.

Kimberlin DW, Stagno S. Can SARS-CoV-2 Infection Be Acquired In Utero? More Definitive Evidence Is Needed. JAMA 2020; 323: 1788-9.

Baud D, Greub G, Favre G, Gengler C, Jaton K, Dubruc E, et al. Second-Trimester Miscarriage in a Pregnant Woman With SARS-CoV-2 Infection. JAMA 2020; 323: 2198-200.

Kelly JC, Dombrowksi M, O’neil-Callahan M, Kernberg AS, Frolova AI, Stout MJ. False-Negative COVID-19 Testing: Considerations in Obstetrical Care. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2020; 2: 100130.

World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) technical guidance: Surveillance and case definitions. definitions. Accessed 28 February 2020.

Moro F, Buonsenso D, Moruzzi MC, Inchingolo R, Smargiassi A, Demi L, et al. How to perform lung ultrasound in pregnant women with suspected COVID-19 infection. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2020; 55: 593-8.

Boelig RC, Saccone G, Bellussi F, Berghella V. MFM Guidance for COVID-19. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2020; 2: 100106.

Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, et al. Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17: 1729.

Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Mclntyre RS, et al. A Longitudinal Study on the Mental Health of General Population during the COVID-19 Epidemic in China. Brain Behav Immun 2020; 87: 40-8.

Ho CS, Chee CY, Ho RC. Mental Health Strategies to Combat the Psychological Impact of COVID-19 Beyond Paranoia and Panic. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2020; 49: 155‐60.

Enforcement Policy for Non-Invasive Fetal and Maternal Monitoring Devices Used to Support Patient Monitoring During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Public Health Emergency. Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; April 2020.

Thachil J, Tang N, Gando S, Falanga A, Cattaneo M, Levi M, et al. ISTH interim guidance on recognition and management of coagulopathy in COVID‐19. J Thromb Haemost 2020; 18: 1023-6.

Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res 2020; 30: 269-71.

Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Graham RL, Menachery VD, Gralinski LE, Case JB, et al. Broad-spectrum antiviral GS-5734 inhibits both epidemic and zoonotic coronaviruses. Sci Transl Med 2017; 9: eaal3653.

Mulangu S, Dodd LE, Davey RT Jr, Mbaya OT, Proschan M, Mukadi D, et al. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Ebola Virus Disease Therapeutics. N Engl J Med 2019; 381: 2293-303.

Clowse ME, Magder L, Witter F, Petri M. Hydroxychloroquine in lupus pregnancy. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 3640 7.

CDC. Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians. 2019. malaria/resources/ pdf/clinicalguidance.pdf (20-03-2020).

Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry Steering Committee. Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry International Interim Report for 1 January 1989 through 31 July 2019. Wilmington, NC: Registry Coordinating Center; 2019.

Tanacan A, Erol SA, Yücel A. Follow up and Management of High Risk Pregnancies in COVID-19 Pandemic. The Journal of Gynecology - Obstetrics and Neonatology 2020; 17: 378-87.

COVID-19 FAQs for Obstetrician-Gynecologists, Obstetrics covid-19-faqs-for-ob-gyns-obstetrics (Accessed on March 30, 2020).

COVID-19 FAQs for Obstetrician-Gynecologists, Obstetrics faqs/ covid-19-faqs-for-ob-gyns-obstetrics (Accessed on March 25, 2020).

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. COVID-19 FAQs for Obstetrician-Gynecologists, Obstetrics. covid-19-faqs-for-ob-gyns-obstetrics (Accessed on March 25, 2020).

Webster CM, Smith KA, Manuck TA. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in pregnant and postpartum women: a ten-year case series. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2020; 2: 100108.

World Health Organziation. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID-19 disease is suspected. Interim guidance 13 March 2020. https://www. management-of-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-when-novel-coronavirus-(ncov)-infection-is-suspected (Accessed on April 10, 2020).

Stephens AJ, Barton JR, Bentum NA, Blackwell SC, Sibai BM. General Guidelines in the Management of an Obstetrical Patient on the Labor and Delivery Unit during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Am J Perinatol 2020; 37: 829-36.

Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Society for Obstetric and Anesthesia and Perinatology. Labor and Delivery COVID-19 Considerations. 2020Available at: COVID_LD_Considerations_3-27-20_(final)_PDF.pdf. Accessed March 27, 2020.

Interim Considerations for Infection Prevention and Control of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Inpatient Obstetric Healthcare Settings guidance.html. Accessed 09 April 2020.

Stuebe A. Should Infants Be Separated from Mothers with COVID-19? First, Do No Harm. Breastfeed Med 2020; 15: 351- 2.

Boelig RC, Manuck T, Oliver EA, Di Mascio D, Saccone G, Bellussi F, et al. Labor and Delivery Guidance for COVID-19. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2020; 2: 100110.

Republic of Turkey Ministry of Health General Directorate of Public Health, Covid-19 (2019-N Cov Disease) Guide, Science Committee Work, 25.02.2020. Accessibility:https://hsgm. tr/depo/birimler/Bulasici-hastaliklar-db/hastaliklar/2019_n_ CoV/rehberler/COVID-19_RehberiV5-25Subat2020.pdf [Accessed on March 21, 2020].




How to Cite

Gündüz, R., Ağaçayak, E., Yaman Tunç, S., & Gül, T. (2023). Pregnancy During the Covid-19 Pandemic: What an Obstetrician Needs to Know. European Journal of Therapeutics, 26(4), 337–343.



Original Articles