Physical Activity in Neurological Disorders: A Narrative Review
Abstract views: 166 / PDF downloads: 135
Keywords:Exercise, Neurologic disorders, Physical activity
Physical activity levels of people with chronic neurological disorders are lower than those of healthy people. Problems in neurological disorders, including gait abnormalities, muscle weakness/loss of strength, spasticity, tremor, fatigue, balance disorder, and incontinence, results in lower physical activity level. After determining the situations that are contraindicated for physical activity, the patients should be evaluated by physiotherapists, and possible risks that may occur should be determined. Many studies have demonstrated that physical activity significantly reduces mortality and morbidity, increases community participation, and improves health-related quality of life. These benefits show that increased physical activity and exercise should be part of the standard management of neurological disorders. In these patients, physical activity programs should be structured individually by providing appropriate environmental conditions and safety, following the assessment of the functional status and severity of the disease. The duration, intensity, and type of planned physical activity should be adjusted individually; Appropriate rest intervals should be given during the activity, and termination criteria should be determined according to individual tolerance. This literature review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of physical activity recommendations for individuals with chronic neurological disorders.
Fidan U, Özkan N. Design and Implementation of Measurement and Exercise System with Kinect Sensor for Neurological Rehabilitation. Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Sciences and Engineering. 2018;18:727–33.
Giggins OM, Clay I, Walsh L. Physical Activity Monitoring in Patients with Neurological Disorders: A Review of Novel Body-Worn Devices. Digital biomarkers. 2017;1(1):14–42.
Block VAJ, Pitsch E, Tahir P, Cree BAC, Allen DD, Gelfand JM. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review. PloS one. 2016;11(4):e0154335.
Nonnekes J, Goselink RJM, Růžička E, Fasano A, Nutt JG, Bloem BR. Neurological disorders of gait, balance and posture: a sign-based approach. Nat Rev Neurol. 2018;14(3):183-189. doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2017.178.
Brunjes DL, Kennel PJ, Christian Schulze P. Exercise capacity, physical activity, and morbidity. Heart failure reviews. 2017;22(2):133–9.
Salbach NM, Howe J-A, Baldry D, Merali S, Munce SEP. Considerations for expanding community exercise programs incorporating a healthcare-recreation partnership for people with balance and mobility limitations: a mixed-methods evaluation. BMC research notes [Internet]. 2018;11(1):214. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29609662
Yurtcicek S. Fiziksel Aktivite Engelleri Ölçeği’nin Türkçe Formunun Geçerlik Ve Güvenirlik Çalışması. The Journal of Academic Social Sciences. 2018;71:396–404.
Schmidt SCE, Tittlbach S, Bös K, et al. Different Types of Physical Activity and Fitness and Health in Adults: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study. BioMed Research International. 2017;2017.
Baker LD, Frank LL, Foster-Schubert K, Green PS, Wilkinson CW, McTiernan A, et al. Effects of aerobic exercise on mild cognitive impairment: a controlled trial. Archives of neurology. 2010;67(1):71–9.
Huang T, Larsen KT, Ried-Larsen M, Møller NC, Andersen LB. The effects of physical activity and exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy humans: A review. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014;24(1):1-10. doi:10.1111/sms.12069.
Inoue T, Ninuma S, Hayashi M, Okuda A, Asaka T, Maejima H. Effects of longterm exercise and low-level inhibition of GABAergic synapses on motor control and the expression of BDNF in the motor related cortex. Neurol. Res. 2018;40(1):18-25.
Taniwaki T, Okayama A, Yoshiura T, Togao O, Nakamura Y, Yamasaki T, et al. Age-related alterations of the functional interactions within the basal ganglia and cerebellar motor loops in vivo. NeuroImage. 2007;36(4):1263–76.
Toman J, Klímová B, Vališ M. Multidomain Lifestyle Intervention Strategies for the Delay of Cognitive Impairment in Healthy Aging. Nutrients. 2018;10(10).
Hilton CN. Foundation The Hilton Legacy Serving Humanity Worldwide The Hilton Legacy Serving Humanity Worldwide. 2009.
Matsuda F, Sakakima H, Yoshida Y. The effects of early exercise on brain damage and recovery after focal cerebral infarction in rats. Acta physiologica (Oxford, England). 2011;201(2):275–87.
Kim Y-P, Kim H, Shin M-S, Chang H-K, Jang M-H, Shin M-C, et al. Age-dependence of the effect of treadmill exercise on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of rats. Neuroscience letters. 2004 Jan;355(1–2):152–4.
Kim S-E, Ko I-G, Kim B-K, Shin M-S, Cho S, Kim C-J, et al. Treadmill exercise prevents aging-induced failure of memory through an increase in neurogenesis and suppression of apoptosis in rat hippocampus. Experimental gerontology. 2010;45(5):357–65.
Real CC, Ferreira AFB, Chaves-Kirsten GP, Torrão AS, Pires RS, Britto LRG. BDNF receptor blockade hinders the beneficial effects of exercise in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience. 2013;237:118–29.
Kayes NM, Schluter PJ, McPherson KM, Taylor D, Kolt GS. The Physical Activity and Disability Survey—Revised (PADS-R): an evaluation of a measure of physical activity in people with chronic neurological conditions. Clinical rehabilitation. 2009;23(6):534–43.
Shephard R. Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(6): S36–8.
Kayes NM, Schluter PJ, McPherson KM, Taylor D, Kolt GS. The Physical Activity and Disability Survey -- Revised (PADS-R): an evaluation of a measure of physical activity in people with chronic neurological conditions. Clinical rehabilitation. 2009;23(6):534–43.
Giggins OM, Clay I, Walsh L. Physical Activity Monitoring in Patients with Neurological Disorders: A Review of Novel Body-Worn Devices. Digital Biomarkers. 2017;12.
Zhai Y, Nasseri N, Pöttgen J, Gezhelbash E, Heesen C, Stellmann J-P. Smartphone Accelerometry: A Smart and Reliable Measurement of Real-Life Physical Activity in Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Individuals. Frontiers in neurology. 2020;11:688.
World Health Organization. Who Guıdelınes On Physıcal Actıvıty And Sedentary Behavıour. 2020.
Kim Y, Lai B, Mehta T, Thirumalai M, Padalabalanarayanan S, Rimmer JH, et al. Exercise Training Guidelines for Multiple Sclerosis, Stroke, and Parkinson Disease: Rapid Review and Synthesis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2019;98(7):613-621. doi:10.1097/PHM.0000000000001174.
Marque P, Gasq D, Castel-Lacanal E, De Boissezon X, Loubinoux I. Post-stroke hemiplegia rehabilitation: Evolution of the concepts. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2014;57(8):520–529.
Demirci Şahin A, Üstü Y, Işık D. Serebrovasküler Hastalıklarda Önlenebilen Risk Faktörlerinin Yönetimi. Ankara Medical Journal. 2015;15(2).
Nur Kolbaşı E, Huseyinsinoglu BE, Bulut N. İnmeli Bireylerde Fiziksel Aktivite Katılımı Ve Algılanan İyileşme Arasındaki İlişki [Internet]. Burdur; 2018 May. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330224395.
Pin-Barre C, Laurin J. Physical Exercise as a Diagnostic, Rehabilitation, and Preventive Tool: Influence on Neuroplasticity and Motor Recovery after Stroke. Neural plasticity. 2015;2015:608581.
Pollock A, Baer G, Campbell P, Choo PL, Forster A, Morris J, et al. Physical rehabilitation approaches for the recovery of function and mobility following stroke. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2014;2014(4):CD001920–CD001920.
TC Sağlık Bakanlığı. Ulusal Hastalık Yükü Çalışması. J Chem Inf Model. 2013;(53):1689–1699.
Saunders DH, Greig CA, Young A, Mead GE. Physical fitness training for stroke patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2004;(1).
Saunders DH, Sanderson M, Hayes S, Kilrane M, Greig CA, Brazzelli M, et al. Physical fitness training for stroke patients. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2016;3(3): CD003316.
Fasczewski KS, Gill DL, Rothberger SM. Physical activity motivation and benefits in people with multiple sclerosis. Disability and Rehabilitation. 2018;40(13):1517–23.
Barak S, Hutzler Y, Dubnov-Raz G, Achiron A. Physical Exercise For People with Multiple Sclerosis: Effects, Recommendations and Barriers. Harefuah. 2016;155(6):364-369,385.
Latimer-Cheung AE, Pilutti LA, Hicks AL, Martin Ginis KA, Fenuta AM, MacKibbon KA, et al. Effects of exercise training on fitness, mobility, fatigue, and health-related quality of life among adults with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review to inform guideline development. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2013;94(9):1800-1828.e3.
Petajan JH, White AT. Recommendations for Physical Activity in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. 1999.
Suh Y, Weikert M, Dlugonski D, Balantrapu S, Motl RW. Social cognitive variables as correlates of physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis: findings from a longitudinal, observational study. Behavioral medicine (Washington, DC). 2011;37(3):87–94.
Pankratz N, Foroud T. Genetics of Parkinson disease. NeuroRx. 2004;1(2):235-242. doi:10.1602/neurorx.1.2.235.
White DK, Wagenaar RC, Ellis T. Monitoring activity in individuals with Parkinson disease: a validity study. Journal of neurologic physical therapy : JNPT. 2006;30(1):12–21.
Cavanaugh JT, Ellis TD, Earhart GM, Ford MP, Foreman KB, Dibble LE. Capturing ambulatory activity decline in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of neurologic physical therapy : JNPT. 2012;36(2):51–7.
Ellis T, Cavanaugh JT, Earhart GM, Ford MP, Foreman KB, Fredman L, et al. Factors associated with exercise behavior in people with Parkinson’s disease. Physical therapy. 2011;91(12):1838–48.
Hjeltnes N. Spinal cord injury. Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. 2010;45.
Craig A, Tran Y, Wijesuriya N, Middleton J. Fatigue and tiredness in people with spinal cord injury. Journal of psychosomatic research. 2012;73(3):205–10.
Charlifue SW, Weitzenkamp DA, Whiteneck GG. Longitudinal outcomes in spinal cord injury: aging, secondary conditions, and well-being. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 1999;80(11):1429–34.
Kroll T, Kratz A, Kehn M, Jensen MP, Groah S, Ljungberg IH, et al. Perceived exercise self-efficacy as a predictor of exercise behavior in individuals aging with spinal cord injury. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation. 2012;91(8):640–51.
Rao AK, Chou A, Bursley B, Smulofsky J, Jezequel J. Systematic review of the effects of exercise on activities of daily living in people with Alzheimer’s disease. The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association. 2014;68(1):50–56.
Burns A, Byrne EJ, Maurer K. Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet (London, England). 2002;360(9327):163–5.
Eggermont L, Swaab D, Luiten P, Scherder E. Exercise, cognition, and Alzheimer’s disease: more is not necessarily better. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. 2006;30(4):562–75.
Heyn PC, Johnson KE, Kramer AF. Endurance And Strength Training Outcomes On Cognitively Impaired And Cognitively Intact Older Adults: A Meta-Analysis. 2008.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 European Journal of Therapeutics
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The content of this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.