Morphological and Topographical Anatomy of Nutrient Foramen in The Lower Limb Long Bones

Alt Ekstremite Uzun Kemiklerinde Foramen Nutricium’ların Morfolojik ve Topografik Anatomisi

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Nutrient foramina, femur, tibia, fibula, foraminal index


Objective: The present study aims to determine the number and position of the nutrient foramina (NF) of the human femur, tibia, and fibula and to observe the size, direction, and obliquity of the nutrient foramina.

Methods: We observed 265 adult human, lower limb long bones in the Department of Anatomy of the Gaziantep University. The nutrient foramina were identified with naked eyes, and the obliquity was determined with a hypodermic needle. Gauge 20 and 24 needles were used for size determination. Shape was observed with the naked eye and classified into oval and round types. The nutrient foramina location was determined by dividing total bone length into three segments, and the locations were validated by calculating foraminal index (FI).

Results: Results showed that 79% of the long bones had a single nutrient foramen. More than 96% of the nutrient foramina were directed away from the knees. A total of 87% of the femoral foramina were located in the middle third, 72% of the tibial foramina were located in the proximal third, and 98% of the fibular nutrient foramina were located in the middle third of the specimens. Overall, no foramina were found on the distal third of the studied bones.

Conclusion: Our study findings are in accordance to the findings from several research studies. The assessment of pathological conditions associated with the findings of foramen nutricium in our study may help clinicians and surgeons in planning treatments for applications to be performed in this region. However, it is thought that literature will be a source for basic and clinical sciences by providing reference values.


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How to Cite

Zahra, S. U., Kervancıoğlu, P., & Bahşi, İlhan. (2023). Morphological and Topographical Anatomy of Nutrient Foramen in The Lower Limb Long Bones: Alt Ekstremite Uzun Kemiklerinde Foramen Nutricium’ların Morfolojik ve Topografik Anatomisi. European Journal of Therapeutics, 24(1), 36–43.



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