Stress-Responsive MAPK Signaling Pathway with Proliferation and Apoptosis in the Rat Testis After 2100 Mhz Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure


Abstract views: 124 / PDF downloads: 148

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.58600/eurjther2009

Keywords:

Apoptosis, MAPK pathway, proliferation, radiofrequency radiation, rat, testis

Abstract

Objective: Mobile phone technology has progressed quickly in recent years. Cell phones operate using radiofrequency radiation (RFR), and the complete biological impacts of RFR remain unidentified. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential effects of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation exposure on the stress-responsive JNK/p38 MAPK pathway, apoptosis and proliferation in rat testis.

Methods: RFR groups were created with 2100 MHz RFR exposure for acute (2 h/day for 1 week) and chronic (2 h/day for 10 weeks) periods. Sham groups were kept under identical conditions without RFR. The cell apoptosis and histopathological changes in testis were evaluated. Immunolocalization of PCNA, active caspase-3, Bcl-xL, p-JNK and p-p38 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, the total protein expressions were identified by Western blot.

Results: There were no differences between RFR and sham groups by means of histopathology and TUNEL analysis. Also, the expression levels and the immunolocalization patterns of PCNA, active caspase-3 and Bcl-xL proteins were not altered. p-JNK and p-p38 protein expressions were prominently elevated in acute and chronic RFR groups.

Conclusion: In conclusion, 2100 MHz RFR exposure had no considerably deleterious consequences on cellular proliferation and apoptosis processes in rat testis. However, increased expression of stress-activated protein kinases, p-JNK and p-p38, suggests the involvement of the MAPK signaling pathway as a critical (may be detrimental) cellular response.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Hardell L (2017) World Health Organization, radiofrequency radiation and health-a hard nut to crack. International Journal of Oncology 51:405-413. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2017.4046

Guo L, Lin J-J, Xue Y-Z, An G-Z, Zhang J-P, Zhang K-Y, He W, Wang H, Li W, Ding G-R (2019) Effects of 220 MHz pulsed modulated radiofrequency field on the sperm quality in rats. International journal of environmental research and public health 16:1286. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071286

Yadav H, Sharma RS, Singh R (2022) Immunotoxicity of radiofrequency radiation. Environ Pollut 309:119793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119793

Al-Khlaiwi T, Meo SA (2004) Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population. Saudi Med J 25:732-736.

Wallace J, Shang W, Gitton C, Hugueville L, Yahia-Cherif L, Selmaoui B (2023) Theta band brainwaves in human resting EEG modulated by mobile phone radiofrequency. Int J Radiat Biol 99:1639-1647. https://doi.org/10.1080/09553002.2023.2187477

Özgen M, Take G, Kaplanoğlu İ, Erdoğan D, Seymen CM (2023) Therapeutic effects of melatonin in long-term exposure to 2100MHz radiofrequency radiation on rat sperm characteristics. Rev Int Androl 21:100371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.androl.2023.100371

Hassanzadeh-Taheri M, Khalili MA, Hosseininejad Mohebati A, Zardast M, Hosseini M, Palmerini MG, Doostabadi MR (2022) The detrimental effect of cell phone radiation on sperm biological characteristics in normozoospermic. Andrologia 54:e14257. https://doi.org/10.1111/and.14257

Griveau J, Lannou DL (1997) Reactive oxygen species and human spermatozoa: physiology and pathology. International journal of andrology 20:61-69. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2605.1997.00044.x

Agarwal A, Makker K, Sharma R (2008) Clinical relevance of oxidative stress in male factor infertility: an update. Am J Reprod Immunol 59:2-11. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0897.2007.00559.x

Çelik S, Aridogan IA, Izol V, Erdoğan S, Polat S, Doran Ş (2012) An evaluation of the effects of long-term cell phone use on the testes via light and electron microscope analysis. Urology 79:346-350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2011.10.054

Dasdag S, Taş M, Akdag MZ, Yegin K (2015) Effect of long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on testes functions. Electromagnetic biology and medicine 34:37-42. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2013.869752

Slater A, Stefan C, Nobel I, Van den Dobbelsteen D, Orrenius S (1996) Intracellular redox changes during apoptosis. Cell death and differentiation 3:57-62.

El Rawas R, Amaral IM, Hofer A (2020) Is p38 MAPK Associated to Drugs of Abuse-Induced Abnormal Behaviors? Int J Mol Sci 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144833

Reddy KB, Nabha SM, Atanaskova N (2003) Role of MAP kinase in tumor progression and invasion. Cancer Metastasis Rev 22:395-403. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1023781114568

Sahoo B, Gupta MK (2023) Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Spermatogenesis-Related CircRNAs and LncRNAs in Goat Spermatozoa. Biochem Genet. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10528-023-10520-8

Sun QY, Breitbart H, Schatten H (1999) Role of the MAPK cascade in mammalian germ cells. Reprod Fertil Dev 11:443-450. https://doi.org/10.1071/rd00014

Er H, Tas GG, Soygur B, Ozen S, Sati L (2022) Acute and Chronic Exposure to 900 MHz Radio Frequency Radiation Activates p38/JNK-mediated MAPK Pathway in Rat Testis. Reproductive Sciences 29:1471-1485. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43032-022-00844-y

Weiland T (1977) A discretization model for the solution of Maxwell's equations for six-component fields. Archiv Elektronik und Uebertragungstechnik 31:116-120.

Singh KV, Prakash C, Nirala JP, Nanda RK, Rajamani P (2023) Acute radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure impairs neurogenesis and causes neuronal DNA damage in the young rat brain. Neurotoxicology 94:46-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2022.11.001

Qin F, Cao H, Feng C, Zhu T, Zhu B, Zhang J, Tong J, Pei H (2021) Microarray profiling of LncRNA expression in the testis of pubertal mice following morning and evening exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency fields. Chronobiology International 38:1745-1760. https://doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2021.1962902

Kim T-H, Huang T-Q, Jang J-J, Kim MH, Kim H-J, Lee J-S, Pack JK, Seo J-S, Park W-Y (2008) Local exposure of 849 MHz and 1763 MHz radiofrequency radiation to mouse heads does not induce cell death or cell proliferation in brain. Experimental & molecular medicine 40:294-303. https://doi.org/10.3858/emm.2008.40.3.294

Jiménez-García MN, Arellanes-Robledo J, Aparicio-Bautista DI, Rodríguez-Segura MÁ, Villa-Treviño S, Godina-Nava JJ (2010) Anti-proliferative effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on preneoplastic lesions formation in the rat liver. BMC cancer 10:1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-159

Huang T-Q, Lee J-S, Kim T-H, Pack J-K, Jang J-J, Seo J-S (2005) Effect of radiofrequency radiation exposure on mouse skin tumorigenesis initiated by 7, 12-dimethybenz [α] anthracene. International journal of radiation biology 81:861-867. https://doi.org/10.1080/09553000600568093

Bin-Meferij MM, El-Kott AF (2015) The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 8:12487-12497.

Margawati H, Yustisia I, Hardjo M, Natsir R, Aziz I, Hafiyani L, Aswad H (2023) GLUT5, GLUT7, and GLUT11 expression and Bcl-2/Bax ratio on Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7 Treated with Fructose and Glucose. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 24:3917-3924. https://doi.org/10.31557/apjcp.2023.24.11.3917

Šimaiová V, Almášiová V, Holovská K, Kisková T, Horváthová F, Ševčíková Z, Tóth Š, Raček A, Račeková E, Beňová K (2019) The effect of 2.45 GHz non-ionizing radiation on the structure and ultrastructure of the testis in juvenile rats. Histology and Histopathology 34:391-403. https://doi.org/10.14670/hh-18-049

Odacı E, Hancı H, Yuluğ E, Türedi S, Aliyazıcıoğlu Y, Kaya H, Çolakoğlu S (2016) Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymal sperm quality. Biotech Histochem 91:9-19. https://doi.org/10.3109/10520295.2015.1060356

Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Ulukaya E, Uzunlar AK, Yegin D (2008) Mobile phone exposure does not induce apoptosis on spermatogenesis in rats. Archives of Medical Research 39:40-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2007.06.013

Ma H, Cao X, Ma X, Chen J, Chen J, Yang H, Liu Y (2015) Protective effect of Liuweidihuang Pills against cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in rat testes. Zhonghua nan ke xue= National journal of andrology 21:737-741.

Shahin S, Singh SP, Chaturvedi CM (2018) 1800 MHz mobile phone irradiation induced oxidative and nitrosative stress leads to p53 dependent Bax mediated testicular apoptosis in mice, Mus musculus. Journal of Cellular Physiology 233:7253-7267. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.26558

Saygin M, Caliskan S, Karahan N, Koyu A, Gumral N, Uguz A (2011) Testicular apoptosis and histopathological changes induced by a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field. Toxicology and industrial health 27:455-463. https://doi.org/10.1177/0748233710389851

Lee HJ, Pack JK, Kim TH, Kim N, Choi SY, Lee JS, Kim SH, Lee YS (2010) The lack of histological changes of CDMA cellular phone‐based radio frequency on rat testis. Bioelectromagnetics 31:528-534. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.20589

Ali S, Khan MR, Batool R, Shah SA, Iqbal J, Abbasi BA, Yaseen T, Zahra N, Aldhahrani A, Althobaiti F (2021) Characterization and phytochemical constituents of Periploca hydaspidis Falc crude extract and its anticancer activities. Saudi J Biol Sci 28:5500-5517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.08.020

Wu H, Wang D, Meng Y, Ning H, Liu X, Xie Y, Cui L, Wang S, Xu X, Peng R (2018) Activation of TLR signalling regulates microwave radiation‐mediated impairment of spermatogenesis in rat testis. Andrologia 50:e12828. https://doi.org/10.1111/and.12828

Downloads

Published

2024-03-09

How to Cite

Er, H., Tas, G. G., Soygur, B., Ozen, S., & Sati, L. (2024). Stress-Responsive MAPK Signaling Pathway with Proliferation and Apoptosis in the Rat Testis After 2100 Mhz Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure. European Journal of Therapeutics. https://doi.org/10.58600/eurjther2009

Issue

Section

Original Articles

Categories

Funding data