Variation of Wormian and Inca Bones in Adult Skulls


Abstract views: 138 / PDF downloads: 182

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.58600/eurjther1935

Keywords:

morphometry, variation, Wormian Bone, Inca bone

Abstract

Objective: Irregular and abnormal small additional bones called Wormian bones can be encountered between the skull bones. This study aimed to investigate the incidence, topographical distribution, morphology, and interrelationship of the Wormian and Inca bones in Central Anatolia Region dry adult skulls.

Methods: In the study, 119 adult skulls were examined. The location and frequency of additional bones (Wormian) in the sutures in the cranium were determined. Skulls with Inca bones were identified. The Inca bones were typified in accordance with the literature and their dimensions in the transverse and sagittal axis were measured with a digital caliper.

Results: Wormian bone was present in 33 of 119 adult skulls (27.7%). Of the 33 bones, 22 were detected in the male (66.66%) and 11 female (33.34%) skulls. The locations of the Wormian bones in the order of decreasing incidence were the lambdoid suture (16.0%, 19/119), pterion (16.0%, 19/119), lambda (7.6%, 9/119), asterion (2.5%, 3/119), and bregma (1.7%, 2/119). Nine Inca bones were found in the lambdoid region (27.3%, 9/33). Six of these bones (66.7%) were in the male skull. We found that two of these bones were incomplete lateral asymmetric, two were complete symmetric bipartite, two were incomplete asymmetric bipartite and three were incomplete median type. We found that 13 (10.9%) of the skulls in the study had metopic sutures and 0.8% had craniosynostosis. When the craniums with metopic suture were evaluated, it was found that 8 of them (61.5%) had additional bone. 50% of the Wormian bones were found in the lambdoid suture.

Conclusion: It has been found that the incidence of Wormian bone increases with suture variations. It was determined that the frequency of Inca bone variation may vary depending on regional differences.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Hauser G, De Stefano (1989) Epigenetic variants of the human skull. Stuttgart, Schweizerbart, Actas del XVII Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, Buenos Aires.

Reveron RR (2017) Anatomical classification of sutural bones. MOJ Anat Physiol. 3 (4): 130-133. https://doi.org/10.15406/mojap.2017.03.00101.

Murlimanju BV, Prabhu LV, Ashraf CM, Kumar CG, Rai R, Maheshwari C (2011) Morphological and topographical study of Wormian bones in cadaver dry skulls. J Morphol Sci. 28 (3): 176-179.

Jos Hemalatha GA, Arumugam K (2016) Study on the Occurrence of Wormian Bones in Human Adult Dry Skulls. IJCMAAS. 9 (3): 126-128.

Marathe RR, Yogesh AS, Pandit SV, Joshi M, Trivedi GN (2010) Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India. J Neurosci Rural Pract. 1 (1): 14-16. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-3147.63094

Cirpan S, Aksu F, Mas N (2014) Inca Bone in Human Skulls of the West Anatolian Population. Int J Morphol. 32 (1): 275-278.

Donapudi A, Vijayanirmala B (2020) Incidence of Inca Bones among Dry Human Skull Bones: A Study in the Medical Colleges of a District in Southern India. Int J Anat Radiol Surg. 9 (3): AO01-AO03. https://doi.org/10.7860/IJARS/2020/44196:2547

Fujita MQ, Taniguchi M, Zhu BL, Quan L, Ishida K, Oritani S, Kano T, Kamikodai Y, Maeda H (2002) Inca bone in forensic autopsy: a report of two cases with a review of the literature. Legal Medicine. 4: 197-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1344-6223(02)00029-9

Hanihara T, Ishıda H (2001) Os incae: variation in frequency in major human population groups. J Anat. 198: 137-152. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-7580.2001.19820137.x.

Torgersen JH (1951) Hereditary factors in the sutural pattern of the skull. Acta Radiol. 36: 374-382.

Deol MS, Truslove GM (1957) Genetical studies on the skeleton of the mouse XX. Maternal physiology and variation in the skeleton of C57 BL mice. Journal of Genetics. 55: 288-312.

Christian WC, Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect (2015) The Evaluation of Suspected Child Physical Abuse. Pediatrics. 135 (5): e1337-e1354. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-0356.

Johal J, Iwanaga J, Loukas M, Tubbs RS (2017) Anterior Fontanelle Wormian Bone/ Fontanellar Bone: A Review of this Rare Anomaly with Case Illustration. Cureus 9 (7): e1443. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.1443.

Albay S, Sakallı B, Yonguç GN, Kastomoni Y, Edizer M (2013) Incidence and Morphometry of Sutural Bones [Ossa suturalia bulunma sıklığı ve morfometrisi]. SDÜ Tıp Fak Derg 20(1): 1-7 ([In Turkish]).

Buikstra JE, Ubelaker DH (1994) Standards for Data Collection From Human Skeletal Remains. Fayetteville, Arkansas, Archeological Survey Research. 44.

Bellary SS, Steinberg A, Mirzayan N, Shirak M, Tubbs RS, Cohen-Gadol AA, Loukas M (2013) Wormian Bones: A Review. Clin Anat. 26: 922-927. https://doi.org/10.1002/ca.22262

Himabindu A, Narasinga R (2015) An Insight Into Wormian Bones. IJSRES. 2 (6): 26-28.

Jeanty P, Silva SR, Turner C (2000) Prenatal diagnosis of wormian bones. J Ultrasound Med. 19 (12): 863-869.

Kaplan SB, Kemp SS, Oh KS (1991) Radiographic manifestations of congenital anomalies of the skull. Radiol Clin North Am. 29 (2): 195-218.

Marti B, Sirinelli D, Maurin L (2013) Wormian bones in a general paediatric population. Diagn Interv Imaging. 94: 428-432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diii.2013.01.001.

Cirpan S, Aksu F, Mas N (2015) The incidence and topographic distribution of sutures including wormian bones in human skulls. J Craniofac Surg. 26 (5): 1687-1690. https://doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000001933.

Ghosh SK, Biswas S, Sharma S, Chakraborty S (2017) An anatomical study of wormian bones from the eastern part of India: is genetic influence a primary determinant of their morphogenesis?. Anat Sci Int. 92 (3): 373-382. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12565-016-0342-1.

Natsis K, Piagkou M, Lazaridis N (2019) Incidence, number and topography of Wormian bones in Greek adult dry skulls. Folia Morphol. 78 (2): 359-370. https://doi.org/10.5603/FM.a2018.0078.

Vijay LVG, Ramakrishna A, Jacob M (2017) Incidence of wormian bones in dry human skulls in South Indian Population. Int J Anat Res. 5(3): 4349-4355. https://doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2017.331.

Safak NK, Taskin RG, Yücel AH (2020) Morphologic and Morphometric Evaluation of the Wormian Bones. Int J Morphol. 38 (1): 69-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022020000100069.

Sreekanth T, Samala N (2016) Morphologıcal study of wormıan bones ın drıed adult human skulls ın Telangana. Int J Anat Res. 4 (3): 3257-3262. https://doi.org/10.16965/ijar.2016.454.

Ogut E, Yildirim FB (2023) Wormian bone types: investigating their appearance, correlation to sex, population affinity, and clinical syndromes. Egypt J Forensic Sci. 13: 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-023-00337-2.

Carolineberry A, Berry RJ (1967) Epigenetic variation in the human cranium. J Anat. 101: 361-379.

Guerram A, Le Minor JM, Renger S, Bierry G (2014) Brief communication: The size of the human frontal sinuses in adults presenting complete persistence of the metopic suture. Am J Phys Anthropol. 154 (4): 621-627. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22532

Aksu F, Cirpan S, Mas NG, Karabekir S, Magden AO (2014) Anatomic features of metopic suture in adult dry skulls. J Craniofac Surg. 25 (3): 1044-1046. https://doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000000564

Çalışkan S, Oğuz KK, Tunalı S, Aldur MM, Erçakmak B, Sargon MF (2018) Morphology of cranial sutures and radiologic evaluation of the variations of intersutural bones. Folia Morphol. 77 (4): 730-735. https://doi.org/10.5603/FM.a2018.0030

Li JH, Chen ZJ, Zhong WX, Yang H, Liu D, Li YK (2022) Anatomical characteristics and significance of the metopism and Wormian bones in dry adult-Chinese skulls. Folia Morphol. https://doi.org/10.5603/FM.a2022.0006

Wu JK, Goodrich JT, Amadi CC, Miller T, Mulliken JB, Shanske AL (2011) Interparietal Bone (Os Incae) in Craniosynostosis. Am J Med Genet Part A. 155: 287-294. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.33800.

O’Loughlin VD (2004) Effects of Different Kinds of Cranial Deformation on the Incidence of Wormian Bones. Am J Phys Anthropol. 123: 146-155. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.10304

Downloads

Published

2024-01-29

How to Cite

Güler, H., Güçlü Ekinci, H. K., & Kamaşak Arpaçay, B. (2024). Variation of Wormian and Inca Bones in Adult Skulls. European Journal of Therapeutics. https://doi.org/10.58600/eurjther1935

Issue

Section

Original Articles

Categories