Morphological and Morphometric Variations of the Hyoid Bone in Anatolian Population
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Keywords:forensic application, hyoid bone, morphometry, morphology, variation
Objective: The morphological and morphometric variations of the hyoid bone (os hyoideum) are known to be significant in cervical surgeries and also serve as important evidence in forensic cases involving hanging and strangulation. The aim of this study is to investigate the morphological and morphometric differences of the hyoid bone.
Methods: Sixty-four adult hyoid bones of unknown age and gender were used in our study. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Istanbul Faculty of Medicine Clinical Research Ethics Committee (date/number: 15.12.2021/632888). The bone shape variations were classified into four main groups: D, U, B, and V types according to the morphometric measurements of the hyoid bone. Also the hyoid bones were evaluated based on their symmetry and isometry properties. Morphometric measurements were analyzed for reliability and repeatability using TEM, rTEM, and R tests, with the same person measuring twice. Measurements were calculated using the Image J program. The data were analyzed using SPSS v.21.
Results: The percentages of D, U, B, and V types were found to be 53.84%, 23.07%, 15.38%, and 11.53%, respectively. Among the hyoid bones, 34 (53.12%) were found to be asymmetrical, 30 (46.88%) symmetrical, 35 (54.69%) anisometric, and 29 (45.31%) were isometric.
Conclusion: Our study's results indicate that the hyoid bone of Anatolian individuals exhibits morphological differences compared to other populations. Understanding the morphological and morphometric values of the hyoid bone can contribute to clinical and forensic applications.
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