Kinesiophobia, Dyspnea, Pain, Fatigue, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Balance in Adolescent Volleyball Players Who Have Had COVID-19
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Keywords:Adolescent Volleyball Players, COVID-19, Balance, Depression, Kinesiophobia
Objectives: It is still unclear to what extent kinesiophobia, dyspnea, pain, fatigue, mood, and balance are affected in adolescent volleyball players who have had COVID-19. Therefore, present study aimed to comparatively investigate kinesiophobia, dyspnea, pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety, stress, and balance between adolescent volleyball players with and without post-COVID-19.
Methods: Adolescent volleyball players between ages of 10-19 (n=40) were included in the study between May 2022 and August 2022 and divided into those who have had COVID-19 (n=18) and those who have never had COVID-19 (n=22). Measurements of kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia), dyspnea perception in daily living activities (Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale), severity of pain and fatigue (Numerical Rating Scale), depression, anxiety, and stress levels (Short Form of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale), static balance (balance test on one leg), and dynamic balance (standing functional reach test) were performed in all volleyball players at once.
Results: There was no statistically significant difference between groups in demographic characteristics, kinesiophobia, dyspnea, pain, fatigue, depression, stress, and balance values (p>0.05). However, anxiety scores of adolescent volleyball players who have not had COVID-19 were statistically significantly higher than those of adolescent volleyball players who have experienced COVID-19 (p<0.05). The incidences of anxiety (n=5, 27.8% versus n=11, 50%) were similar between groups (p>0.05).
Conclusions: During the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic period, kinesiophobia, dyspnea, pain and fatigue perceptions, depression, stress, and balance levels were found to be similar in adolescent volleyball players regardless of their post-COVID-19 status. However, anxiety is more common in adolescent volleyball players without post-COVID-19. Therefore, underlying causes of anxiety observed in adolescent volleyball players without post-COVID-19 should be investigated.
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