Suicide Risk Screening in Primary Care
Abstract views: 102 / PDF downloads: 56
Keywords:Suicide, Primary care, Depression, Hopelessness, Resilience
Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine the general risk of suicide in the scope of primary health care services and to evaluate its relationship with hopelessness, depression, and psychological resilience.
Methods: Seven hundred twenty-five individuals presenting to primary health care services were included in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The research data were collected using a form including the sociodemographic information form, the Suicide Probability Scale (SPS), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Brief Psychological Resilience Scale, and were analyzed on SPSS software.
Results: The general SPS score was 69.49±14.65, indicating a moderate likelihood of suicide. Significant predictors of the risk of suicide by effect sizes were depression level, hopelessness, and psychological resilience.
Conclusion: Screening the risk of suicide in primary health care services is of very great importance. Evaluating the individual’s history of attempted suicide, suicidal ideation, and suicide planning provides important information in assessing the likelihood of suicide.
LeCloux MA, Weimer M, Culp SL, Bjorkgren K, Service S, Campo JV (2020) The Feasibility and Impact of a Suicide Risk Screening Program in Rural Adult Primary Care: A Pilot Test of the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions Toolkit. Psychosomatics. 61(6):698-706. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2020.05.002
World Healt Organization (WHO). Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/suicide
Ivey-Stephenson AZ, Crosby AE, Jack SP, Haileyesus T, Kresnow-Sedacca MJ (2017) Suicide Trends Among and within Urbanization Levels By Sex. Race/ethnicity, Age Group, and Mechanism of Death—United States. 2001–2015. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 66(18):1–16. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6618a1
National Crime Records Bureau Report. 2014. Ministry of Home Affairs. Govt of India. Available from: https://ncrb.gov.in/en/crime-india-year-2014
Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI) (2019) Available from https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Olum-ve-Olum-Nedeni-Istatistikleri-2019-33710
Tanaka H, Nusselder WJ, BoppnM, Brønnum-Hansen H, Kalediene R, Lee JS, Mackenbach JP (2019) Mortality Inequalities by Occupational Class among Men in Japan. South Korea and Eight European Countries: A National Register-Based Study. 1990–2015. J Epidemiol Community Health. 73(8):750-758. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211715
Martínez-Alés G, Jiang T, Keyes KM, Gradus JL (2020) The Recent Rise of Suicide Mortality in the United States. Annu Rev Public Health. 43:99-116. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-051920-123206
Conwell Y. Duberstein PR. Cox C. Herrmann JH. Forbes NT. Caine ED (1996) Relationships of Age and Axis I Diagnoses in Victims of Completed Suicide: A Psychological Autopsy Study. Am J Psychiatry. 153:1001-1008. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.153.8.1001
Borges G, Angst J, Nock MK, Ruscio A, Kessler RC (2008) Risk Factors for the Incidence and Persistence of Suicide-Related Outcomes: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study Using the National Comorbidity Surveys. J Affect Disord. 105:25–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2007.01.036
Eskin M, Sun JM, Abuidhail J, Yoshimasu K, Kujan O, Janghorbani M, Voracek M (2016) Suicidal Behavior and Psychological Distress in University Students: A 12-Nation Study. Arch Suicide Res. 20(3):369-388. https://doi.org/10.1080/13811118.2015.1054055
Yazdi-Ravandi S, Khazaei S, Shahbazi F, Matinnia N, Ghaleiha A (2021) Predictors of Completed Suicide: Results From the Suicide Registry Program in the west of Iran. Asian J Psychiatr. 59:102615. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2021.102615
Beck AT, Brown G, Steer RA (1989) Prediction of Eventual Suicide in Psychiatric Inpatients by Clinical Ratings of Hopelessness. J Consult Clin Psychol. 57(2):309–310. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.57.2.309
Stene-Larsen K, Reneflot A (2019) Contact with Primary and Mental Health Care Prior to Suicide: A Systematic Review of The Literature From 2000 to 2017. Scand J Public Health. 47(1):9-17. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494817746274
Horowitz LM, Mournet AM, Lanzillo E, He JP, Powell DS, Ross AM, Pao M (2021) Screening Pediatric Medical Patients for Suicide Risk: Is Depression Screening Enough?. J Adolesc Health. 68(6):1183-1188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.01.028
Taliaferro LA, Borowsky IW (2011) Perspective: Physician Education: A Promising Strategy to Prevent Adolescent Suicide. Acad Med. 86(3):342-347. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e31820984ad
Ayer L, Horowitz, LM, Colpe L, Lowry NJ, Ryan PC, Boudreaux E, Little V, Erban S, Ramirez-Estrada, Schoenbaum M (2022) Clinical Pathway for Suicide Risk Screening in Adult Primary Care Settings: Special Recommendations. J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry. 63(5):497-510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaclp.2022.05.003
Atlı Z, Eskin M, Dereboy Ç (2009) The Validity and the Reliliability of Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) in Clinical Sample. Turkish J Clin Psychol. 12(3):111-124.
Cull JG, Gill WS (1982) Suicide Probability Scale. APA PsycTests. https://doi.org/10.1037/t01198-000
Eskin M (1993) Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Perceived Social Support from Friends and Family Scales, Scale for Interpersonal Behavior, and Suicide Probability Scale. J Clin Psychol. 49(4):515-522. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(199307)49:4<515::AID-JCLP2270490408>3.0.CO;2-K
Beck AT (1984) Internal Consistencies of the Original and Revised Beck Depression Inventory. J Clin Psychol. 4(6):1365-1367. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(198411)40:6<1365::AID-JCLP2270400615>3.0.CO;2-D
Hisli N (1989) A Reliability and Validity Study of Beck Depression Inventory in a University Student Sample. J Psychol. 7(23):3-13.
Beck AT, Weissman A, Lester D, Trexler L (1974) The Measurement of Pessimism: The Hopelessness Scale. J Consult Clin Psychol. 42(6):861. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0037562
Ulusoy M, Şahin N, Erkman H (1998) Turkish Version of The Beck Anxiety Inventory: Sychometric Properties. J. Cogn. Psychother. 12:28-35.
Smith BW, Dalen J, Wiggins K, Tooley E, Christopher P, Jennifer Bernard J (2008) The Brief Resilience Scale: Assessing the Ability to Bounce Back. Int J Behav Med. 15:194–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705500802222972
Doğan T (2015) Adaptation of the Brief Resilience Scale into Turkish: A Validity and Reliability Study. JHWB. 3(1):93-102.
Çapar A, Cuhadar D. (2022) Correlation between psychological resilience and suicide probability in patients with psychiatric disorder. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 58:1442–1448. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppc.12948
Ayhan F, Üstün B, Ergüzel TT (2020) The Development of a Fuzzy Logic Model-Based Suicide Risk Assessment Tool. JNBS. 7(3):156-163. https://doi.org/10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_30_20
Tubaş F, Husrevoglu Esen F, Öztelcan Gündüz B, Ünay B (2022) Youth Suicide and Hospital-Presenting Suicide Attempts: Examination of Risk Factors for Multiple Suicide Attempts in Adolescence. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 68(5):1047-1053. https://doi.org/10.1177/00207640221099415
Vannoy SD, Robins LS (2011) Suicide-Related Discussions with Depressed Primary Care Patients in the USA: Gender and Quality Gaps. A Mixed Methods Analysis. BMJ Open. 1(2):e000198. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000198
Zeppegno P, Gramaglia C, Castello LM, Bert F, Gualano MR, Ressico F, Coppola I, Avanzi GC, Siliquini, R, Torre E (2015) Suicide Attempts and Emergency Room Psychiatric Consultation. BMC Psychiatry. 15(1):13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-015-0392-2
Kposowa AJ (2000) Marital Status and Suicide in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 54(4):254-261.
American Psychiatric Association (2003) Practice Guidelines For The Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviours. Am J Psychiatry. 160(11):1-60. https://psychiatryonline.org/pb/assets/raw/sitewide/practice_guidelines/guidelines/suicide.pdf
Alptekin K, Duyan V (2019) What Was the Distribution of Suicide Rates by Socio-Demographic Factors Between 2007 and 2016 in Turkey?. J Psy Nurs. 10(4):270-276. https://doi.org/10.14744/phd.2019.59354
Karakurt MD (2015) Analysis of Sociodemographic Data of the Patients Admitted to a State Hospital Because of Suicide Attempt. Gaziantep Med J. 21(2):104-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/GMJ-30-601
Genest C, Ricciardelli R, Carleton RN (2021) Correctional Work: Reflections Regarding Suicide. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 18(8):4280. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084280
Mournet AM, Smith JT, Bridge JA, Boudreaux ED, Snyder DJ, Claassen CA, Horowitz LM (2021) Limitations of Screening for Depression as a Proxy for Suicide Risk in Adult Medical Inpatients. J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry. 62(4):413-420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaclp.2021.02.002
Maimon D, Browning CR, Brooks-Gunn J (2010) Collective Efficacy, Family Attachment, and Urban Adolescent Suicide Attempts. J Health Soc Behav. 51(3):307–324. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022146510377878
Malone KM, Oquendo, MA, Haas GL, Ellis SP, Li S, Mann JJ (2000) Protective Factors Against Suicidal Acts in Major Depression: Reasons for Living. Am J Psychiatry. 157:1084 –1088. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.7.1084
Josepho SA, Plutchik R (1994) Stress, Coping, and Suicide Risk in Psychiatric Inpatients. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 24:48–57. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1943-278X.1994.tb00662.x
Suicide Prevention Resource Center. Available from: https://www.sprc.org/about-suicide/risk-protective-factors
Franklin JC, Ribeiro J, Bentley KH, Huang X, Musacchio KM, Chang BP, Fox KR, Kleiman EM, Jaroszewski AC, Nock MK (2017) Risk Factors for Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis of 50 Years of Research. Psychol Bull. 143(2):187–232. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000084
Beautrais AL (2004) Further Suicidal Behavior among Medically Serious Suicide Attempters. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 34:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1521/Suli.184.108.40.206772
Haukka J, Suominen K, Partonen T, Lonnqvist J (2008) Determinants and Outcomes of Serious Attempted Suicide: A Nationwide Study in Finland. 1996–2003. Am J Epidemiol. 167:1155–1163. https://doi.org/10.1093/Aje/Kwn017
Fowler CJ (2012) Suicide Risk Assessment in Clinical Practice: Pragmatic Guidelines for Imperfect Assessments. Psychotherapy. 49(1):81–90. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026148
Indu PS, Anilkumar TV, Pisharody R, Russell PSS, Raju D, Sarma PS, Andrade C (2017) Prevalence of Depression and Past Suicide Attempt in Primary Care. Asian J Psychiatr. 27:48-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2017.02.008
Burr EM, Rahm-Knigge RL, Conner BT (2018) Conner the Differentiating Role of State and Trait Hopelessness in Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt. Arch Suicide Res. 22(3):510-517. https://doi.org/10.1080/13811118.2017.1366960
Matel‐Anderson DM, Bekhet AK, Garnier‐Villarreal M (2019) Mediating Effects of Positive Thinking and Social Support on Suicide Resilience. West J Nurs Res. 41:25–41. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193945918757988
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 European Journal of Therapeutics
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The content of this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.