The Effect of Weight, Smoking, Passive Smoking, Physical Activity Level and Quality of Sleep on Cognitive Status in Adults


Abstract views: 437 / PDF downloads: 188

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.58600/eurjther1644

Keywords:

Cognitive Function, Body Weight, Smoking, Physical activity, Sleep Quality

Abstract

Objective: This study was planned to investigate how the lifestyles of adults affect their cognitive control and flexibility levels and cognitive failure levels.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 81 individuals aged between 18 and 65 without a history of serious chronic illness, communication and emotional problems were included. Demographic characteristics of all individuals were recorded. The ability of individuals to control their negative thoughts and emotions and to cope with a stressful situation was assessed by the Cognitive Control and Flexibility Scale, cognitive failure status by the Cognitive Failure Scale, physical activity levels by the Short Form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.

Results: It was observed that as the Body Mass Index of the individuals increased, cognitive failure also increased and the assessment and coping flexibility level of individuals exposed to passive smoking were lower (p<0.05). It was determined that individuals with poor sleep quality had lower cognitive control scores on emotions and higher cognitive failure scores (p<0.05). It was determined that there was a positive and statistically significant very weak correlation between the individuals' assessment and coping flexibility level and their physical activity level (r=0.273;p<0.05).

Conclusion: It is clearly seen that individuals will improve their cognitive status with changes in their lifestyles in the direction of well-being. In this context, we think that it is important to conduct more extensive research on the factors affecting cognitive status and to raise public awareness in order to minimize negative situations.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Gabrys RL, Tabri N, Anisman H, Matheson K (2018) Cognitive Control and Flexibility in the Context of Stress and Depressive Symptoms: The Cognitive Control and Flexibility Questionnaire. Front Psychol. 9:1-19. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02219

Morton JB, Ezekiel F, Wilk HA (2011) Cognitive Control: Easy to Identify but Hard to Define. Top Cogn Sci. 3:212–216. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-8765.2011.01139.x

De Dreu CKW, Baas M, Nijstad BA (2008) Hedonic Tone and Activation in the Mood–Creativity Link: Towards a Dual Pathway to Creativity Model. J Pers Soc Psychol. 94(5):739–756. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.94.5.739

Ekici G, Uysal SA, Altuntaş O (2016) The validity and reliability of cognitive failures questionnaire in university students [Bilişsel durum ölçeği’nin üniversite öğrencilerinde geçerliliği ve güvenirliliği]. Turk J Physiother Rehabil 27(2):55-60 ([In Turkish]) https://doi.org/10.21653/tfrd.272979

Voortman M, De Vries J, Hendriks CM, Elfferich MD, Wijnen PA, Drent M (2019) Everyday Cognitive Failure in Patients Suffering from Neurosarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 36(1):2-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2017.11.008

Geniş B, Kayalar A, Dönmez A, Coşar B (2022) Effect of structured cognitive-behavioral group therapy on body weight, mental status and the quality of life in obese and overweight individuals: A 16-week follow up study [Obez ve aşırı kilolu bireylerde yapılandırılmış bilişsel davranışçı grup terapisinin vücut ağırlığı, ruhsal durum ve yaşam kalitesi üzerine etkisi: 16 haftalık bir takip çalışması]. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry 33(1):11-21 ([In Turkish]) https://doi.org/10.5080/u25606

Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Goldstein RZ, Alia-Klein N, et al (2008) Inverse Association Between BMI and Prefrontal Metabolic Activity in Healthy Adults. Obesity. 17:60-65. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2008.469

Sabia S, Kivimaki M, Shipley MJ, Marmot MG, Singh-Manoux A (2009) Body Mass Index Over the Adult Life Course and Cognition in Late Midlife: The Whitehall II Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 89:601-607. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26482

Deal JA, Power MC, Palta P, Alonso A, Schneider AL, Perryman K, et al (2020) Relationship of Cigarette Smoking and Time of Quitting with Incident Dementia and Cognitive decline. J Am Geriatr Soc. 68(2):337-345. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16228

Peters R, Poulter R, Warner J, Beckett N, Burch L, Bulpitt C (2008) Smoking, Dementia and Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, A Systematic Review. BMC Geriatrics. 8:36. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-8-36

Anstey KJ, Von Sanden C, Salim A, O’Kearney R (2007) Smoking as a Risk Factor for Dementia and Cognitive Decline: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. Am J Epidemiol. 166:367–378. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwm116.

Argüder E, Abuzaina O, Bakır H, Karalezli A, Hasanoglu HC (2019) Awareness of the patients and their relatives about the health problems occurred by passive smoking [Hasta ve yakınlarının pasif sigara içiminin oluşturduğu sağlık sorunları hakkındaki farkındalığı]. Ankara Med J 19(2):213-225 ([In Turkish]) https://doi.org/10.17098/amj.576890

Stirland LE, O’Shea CI, Russ TC (2018) Passive Smoking as a Risk Factor for Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: Systematic Review of Observational Studies. Int Psychogeriatr. 30(8):1177-1187. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610217002824

Ploughman M (2008) Exercise is Brain Food: The Effects of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function. Dev Neurorehabil. 11(3):236-240. https://doi.org/10.1080/17518420801997007

Bidzan-Bluma I, Lipowska M (2018) Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning of Children: A Systematic Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 15(4):800. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040800

Hötting K, Schickert N, Kaiser J, Röder B, Schmidt-Kassow M (2016) The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults. Neural Plast. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6860573

Carvalho A, Rea IM, Parimon T, Cusack BJ (2014) Physical Activity and Cognitive Function in Individuals Over 60 Years of Age: A Systematic Review. Clin Interv Aging. 9:661-682. https://doi.org/10.2147/cia.s55520

Stavrinou PS, Aphamis G, Pantzaris M, Sakkas GK, Giannaki CD (2022) Exploring the Associations Between Functional Capacity, Cognitive Function and Well-Being in Older Adults. Life. 12(7):1042-1055. https://doi.org/10.3390/life12071042

Cross NE, Carrier J, Postuma RB, Gosselin N, Kakinami L, Thompson C, et al (2019) Association Between Insomnia Disorder and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Sleep. 42(8):114. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz114

Demirtaş AS (2019) Cognitive control and cognitive flexibility in the context of stress: A scale adaptation [Stresli durumlarda bilişsel kontrol ve bilişsel esneklik: Bir ölçek uyarlama çalışması]. Psikoloji Çalışmları- Studies in Psychology 39(2):345-368 ([In Turkish]) https://doi.org/10.26650/sp2019-0028

Craig CL, Mashall AL, Sjöström M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainswhort BE, et al (2003) International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 12- Country Reliability and Validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 35:1381-1395. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000078924.61453.fb

Öztürk M (2005) Research on reliability and validity of international Physical Activity Questionnaire and determination of physical activity level in university students [Üniversitede eğitim-öğretim gören öğrencilerde Uluslararası Fiziksel Aktivite Anketi’nin geçerliliği ve güvenilirliği ve fiziksel aktivite düzeylerinin belirlenmesi]. Hacettepe University, Intitute of Health Sciences Mester Thesis, Ankara, Turkiye https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/tezDetay.jsp?id=Wu5qsjV2YfPTDWxXR0fOAQ&no=rbo_gkFabWbA8zRjg Erişim tarihi: 05.06.2023. ([In Turkish]) https://doi.org/10.31125/hunhemsire.1273101

Agargun M, Kara H, Anlar Ö (1996) Validity and Reliability of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Turkish Sample. Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 7(2):107-115.

Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang AG, Buchner A (2007) G* Power 3: A Flexible Statistical Power Analysis Program for the Social, Behavioral, and Biomedical Sciences. Behav Res Methods. 39(2):175-191. https://doi.org/10.3758/bf03193146

Kraemer HC, Morgan GA, Leech NL, Gliner JA, Vaske JJ, Harmon, RJ (2003) Measures of Clinical Significance. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 42(12):1524-1529. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200312000-00022

Bozhüyük A, Özcan S, Kurdak H, Akpınar E, Saatçi E, Bozdemir N (2012) Healthy life style and family medicine [Sağlıklı yaşam biçimi ve aile hekimliği]. Turkish Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care (TJFMPC) 6(1):13-21 ([In Turkish]) https://doi.org/10.21763/tjfmpc.1006496

Akyol MA, Küçükgüçlü Ö (2018) The importance of cognitive training in the protection and improvement of cognitive functions in elderly individuals [Yaşlı bireylerde bilişsel işlevlerin korunmasında ve geliştirilmesinde bilişsel eğitimin önemi]. E-Journal of Dokuz Eylul University Nursing Faculty 11(4):334-339 ([In Turkish])

Sellaro R, Colzato LS (2017) High Body Mass Index is Associated with Impaired Cognitive Control. Appetite. 113:301-309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.03.008

He F, Li T, Lin J, Li F, Zhai Y, Zhang T, Zhao G (2020) Passive Smoking Exposure in Living Environments Reduces Cognitive Function: A Prospective Cohort Study in Older Adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 17(4):1402-1413. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041402

Ling J, Heffernan T (2016) The Cognitive Deficits Associated with Second-hand Smoking. Front Psychiatry.46. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00046.

Mandolesi L, Polverino A, Montuori S, Foti F, Ferraioli G, Sorrentino P, et al (2018) Effects of Physical Exercise on Cognitive Functioning and Wellbeing: Biological and Psychological Benefits. Front Psychol. 9:509. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00509.

Hong W, Liu RD, Ding Y, Sheng X, Zhen R (2020) Mobile Phone Addiction and Cognitive Failures in Daily Life: The Mediating Roles of Sleep Duration and Quality and the Moderating Role of Trait Self-regulation. Addict Behav. 107:106383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106383.

Xanidis N, Brignell CM (2016) The Association Between the Use of Social Network Sites, Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function During the Day. Comput Hum Behav. 55:121-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.004.

Wilkerson A, Boals A, Taylor JD (2012) Sharpening Our Understanding of the Consequences of Insomnia: The Relationship Between Insomnia and Everyday Cognitive Failures. Cogn Ther Res. 36:134-139. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-011-9418-3

Stickgold R, Walker MP (2007) Sleep-dependent Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation. Sleep Med. 8:331-343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2007.03.011.

Downloads

Published

2023-06-19

How to Cite

Şahan, N., Türkmen, C., Arslan, T., & Yazıcı Gülay, M. (2023). The Effect of Weight, Smoking, Passive Smoking, Physical Activity Level and Quality of Sleep on Cognitive Status in Adults. European Journal of Therapeutics, 29(3), 394–403. https://doi.org/10.58600/eurjther1644

Issue

Section

Original Articles

Categories