ISSN 2564-7784 | E-ISSN 2564-7040
Original Article
Morphological and Topographical Anatomy of Nutrient Foramen in The Lower Limb Long Bones
1 Department of Anatomy, Gaziantep University, School of Medicine, Gaziantep, Turkey  
Eur J Ther 2018; 24: 36-43
DOI: 10.5152/EurJTher.2017.147
Key Words: Nutrient foramina, femur, tibia, fibula, foraminal index


Objective: The present study aims to determine the number and position of the nutrient foramina (NF) of the human femur, tibia, and fibula and to observe the size, direction, and obliquity of the nutrient foramina.


Methods: We observed 265 adult human, lower limb long bones in the Department of Anatomy of the Gaziantep University. The nutrient foramina were identified with naked eyes, and the obliquity was determined with a hypodermic needle. Gauge 20 and 24 needles were used for size determination. Shape was observed with the naked eye and classified into oval and round types. The nutrient foramina location was determined by dividing total bone length into three segments, and the locations were validated by calculating foraminal index (FI).


Results: Results showed that 79% of the long bones had a single nutrient foramen. More than 96% of the nutrient foramina were directed away from the knees. A total of 87% of the femoral foramina were located in the middle third, 72% of the tibial foramina were located in the proximal third, and 98% of the fibular nutrient foramina were located in the middle third of the specimens. Overall, no foramina were found on the distal third of the studied bones.


Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with several research studies. The findings from our study add to the global evidence base and will be a beneficial resource for medical graduates and professionals to understand the anatomical characteristics of nutrient foramina.





How to cite: Zahra SU, Kervancioğlu P, Bahşi İ. Morphological and topographical anatomy of nutrient foramen in the lower limb long bones. Eur J Ther 2018; 24: 36-43.

Key Words
AVES | Copyright © 2018 European Journal of Therapeutics | Latest Update: 13.12.2018